LIFE ANXIETY AND THE VALUE PROFILE OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA

Ivan Sijakovic*, Ph.D.,
Summary

In this work we do research on how the post war development and the transitional period through which is going the society in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and especially in the Republic of Srpska, is affecting the forming of values, value attitudes, and the building of the value profile of young people. We have stated that poverty, poor economic development, social disintegration, political, ethnic and cultural divisions and conflicts are creating a feeling of life anxiety and act frustrating on most of young people in the Republic of Srpska. That affects the forming of the value system in which freedom, justice, and honesty take the first three places on the ranking of values, and are put before knowledge, personal success and work. Aspiration for freedom and justice motivates young people to leave or to want to leave the territory of the Republic of Srpska and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Key words: values, value forms, value profile of young people, life anxiety, social relations, status of young people.

Introduction

A society in transition, and if we add to that the fact that the society which entered into transition through a viscous ethnic, religious, social, political and cultural conflict, than we can state that its not the kind of society that is desirable for a young modern individual. An underdeveloped economy, high unemployment rate and a low level of total life standard, produce poverty as the dominant sign of the social situation in the Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as in the great part of South-eastern Europe. Besides that, we need to have in mind the fact that the country is inbuilt and non-functioning of the government and social institutions, a low level of democracy, only sporadic manifestations of the civil society, the absence of political culture, the fact that political tradition is full of conflict and mistrust, treasons and conspiracies. In what should be sign of a civil society, there are ”magnetic amplitudes” in the political and ethnic area, as well as absence of trust in institutions and intentions of other people. That is the insufficiency of ”social capital” (Fukujama, 1997), accompanied by not enough will and desire to begin with deeper reform in all segments of society. Because of that there is a low level of business and entrepreneurship activities, which is additionally burdened with corruption and dissimulative economic policy and strategy.

These are the overall characteristics of the general social milieu in the Republic of Srpska these years. Such a situation can create, and is creating a feeling of life anxiety in most of the population, especially in young people. Occurrences of manifestation of that feeling are very different: apathy, resignation, various kinds of protests and uprising, loss of work habits and the desire to work, violence, criminal and a number of other forms (old and new) of social pathology. A special form of manifestation of life anxiety, can be proved by the desire to get away from that area and look for a new area in which needs and ambitions can be satisfied.

Because of its specific and individual and collective sensibility, young people sometimes more directly and more obviously, and sometimes quietly and imperceptibly, show their feeling of life anxiety. That can especially be seen in their desire to acquire some form of freedom, to conquer at least a little space in which they can achieve their intentions, desires and ambitions. One of the most common manifestations of the indicated anxiety and limitations of young people is the expressed desire to go abroad.

Previously indicated dimensions of life anxiety and problems related to inclusiveness into society, greatly effect the forming of value orientations and the value profile of young people in the Republic of Srpska. In this essay we will talk about some economic, social, political, and cultural characteristics and specifications of a society in the post war period, of the society which has an additional problem and a hard task to achieve transition to market economy in the liberal framework and through democratic political practice. We will especially analyse the effect of such a social state on the standard, style and way of life and values of young people in the Republic of Srpska. Besides the general opinions of the author on the indicated matters, the analysis will also be based on the results of the survey[1] which was conducted on the territory of the Republic of Srpska, related to other topics, but contains important parts of opinions on the values of young people, which will serve as analysis of the given task in the heading of the theme.

Some comments on the society before the breaking out of the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina

In the period before the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the main sign of economic relations was the government ownership and inherited state consciousness in the organization of work and distribution of property. The consequence of that are irrational production and spending and a continual budget deficit. Limited private ownership has resulted in the absence of business initiative and competition in all part of the economy, and especially in the area of the market. The economy crash in Bosnia and Herzegovina (as well as in the former SFRY) began a decade before the break out of the war in this area. One of the most significant indicators was the occurrence of closing of economic activities in national frameworks (the territory of the former republics), the breaking and curbing of the unique market on the territory of the federal state. The economy was loosing its ability to compete on the international market which lead to debt crisis, which like a ”domino effect” began the final defeat of the economy and social relations as a whole.

Pre-war social relations were characterized by the desire to neutralize and hide (the inevitable and natural) class differences. That was done by a party announcing (formally and declaratively) a working class as the main support and carrier of social development. Therefore, contrary to the developed and economically strong countries where the middle class is considered as the support of the development and competition, and where such conditions are created in which it will be the main catalyst of the social and class dynamics in society. Social relations ”per measure of the working class” have lead to a strong demand for equal distribution of social wealth and the flow of income (social equality), no matter how much work was put in, as well as knowledge, education, ability and skill. The size of salary for all social and professional categories, was compared with working salaries and was criticised if it was ”behind” in relation to them. In order to maintain an artificial social balance, the level of social protection needed to be lifted as well as other forms of social benefits above real abilities and social funds. That additionally burdened the state budget (pulled into deficit) and in that way exhausted financial resources of the society. There was constant tension and a gap between the ”social country” and economic growth, and in the end, the ”social country” and other irrational forms of spending, completely prevented economic growth and contributed to the final collapse of the socialist economy on these territories.

Political inheritance of the modern society is marked with a one party political monopoly in all areas of social life. Instead of the country being ruled by law, it was ruled by parties. Accepted was pluralism of social and other interests, but not political pluralism. Parties ruled on frameworks for economic, social and cultural activities. The party country achieved domination of the civil society. That way was formed a forced political community, instead of a free and voluntary one, which was kept under political (and police) threat and penalty, but also prizes for the obedient and loyal members of a political party. The political community which was formed ”from above”, from the party top, instead of ”from below” in other words the civil society, has fallen apart the moment when a crisis aroused in the party itself.

Cultural flows in the pre-war society have been occurring under the domination and subordination of party and political ”nomenclature”. A unique cultural identity in SFRY or in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B & H) was never built. There was always a number of partial cultural identities and cultural forms which were contrary to each other (language, religion, moral, tradition and history), and even clashed, but the party kept them in ”balance”. Here I will name just one example of an unsuccessful try of creating of a collective identity for all citizens of the former SFRY. Names, we are talking about trying to, during the early eighties, for Yugoslav to be accepted as the expression for a common affiliation of all citizens no matter the national and religious affiliation. Not only did this try not work, but it has caused contra reactions in the sense of the desire for national exclusion and separatism, which lead to the final falling apart of the common country.

The frame into entrance into a state of social anomy

We can set a thesis that the state in the previously mentioned forms, inevitably lead to war conflicts, especially where the crisis was the deepest and where the state was additionally burdened with elements which are not only of the economic and social nature. War is always a consequence of aspiration for distribution or non-distribution of limited resources, in a situation where that can not be done peacefully. In some cases it is about natural resources (petroleum, minerals, water), about economic wealth, about political power and influence, about imposing of ideas and principles in the construction of society, about acquiring and defence of collective identity. The hardest, most cold-blooded and the longest wars are lead around distribution of territory and undetermined borders.

The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina has began as a battle for stipulating and defending of collective identity, especially national and religious. Later it grew into a phase of battles for territory. A question was posed, ”what kind of a nation are we if we don’t have our own country”, and a country must have a determined territory. That question was additionally increased by looking at the neighbouring countries where national countries dominate (country-nations, nation-countries). It really seems like a paradox and additionally frustrating the idea, which was represented by some ethnic groups, to have ”any”, country in a time when small countries have less and less power, influence and sovereignty in international frameworks. It seems retrograded the aspirations and activities directed towards disintegration and tribes, instead of integration and globalisation, like developed countries do it.

War has destroyed the social skin in the Republic of Srpska and Bosnia and Herzegovina, destroyed some important resources, caused mistrust in international relations and additionally extended the period of transition than autarchic economies towards a market economy, from a one party system towards liberalism and democracy. We need to especially point out the negative consequences which the war left on children and young people: lost childhood; frustrations because of loss of property, their family members, their birth place, friends; shortages in education and schooling; forced migration; poverty and an uncertain social support; small possibilities for getting employment, for an advancement in career and influencing their own total future development.

In the post war period a question was posed, how to keep going further with a destroyed economy, poor population, cut international economic, political and cultural flows and relations. The consequences of war include also the increased rate of unemployment, ”black economy”, the syndrome of ”war profiteering” and other habits from the period of the ”war economy”, loosing of work habits and work discipline, expecting of the country to provide all necessary conditions and satisfy needs of people as a form of ”thanks” for their participation in the war and sacrifice in the name of that country, patriotism and collective identity.

Awakening of the economy is additionally made harder by the technology which is out of date and which is not destroyed in the war devastation, as well as the need for to change old ownership relations, way of organizing and other principles of trade. All that was not possible without foreign donations and help, which opens additional questions of human dignity and trust in own strengths and abilities. Young people especially ask themselves what is the sense of sacrifice for unclear and irrational objectives and degraded are being the ”results” of the war period. The post war economy by its inertia additionally closes and curbs room for investment and growth. A curbed market, out of date economy capacities, insufficient financial resources, as well as an undeveloped entrepreneurship initiatives[2] and business culture make the economy of the Republic of Srpska not competitive enough in the environment.

In the post war period in the Republic of Srpska it has come to a great social de-layering onto a small number of rich and the majority of poor people. To that have especially contributed the ”lost illusions” of the working class, which is becoming a technological excess, does not have anywhere to work in, their earlier qualifications and skills are becoming unusable. The working class is becoming the burden to the modern society, it is being excluded and repressed to the margin of social flows. It is not the main (reliable) ”support” of the social improvement anymore, it does not have effect on the social and political happenings as it did in the time of socialism. Agriculturalists have additionally been made poor by the war devastation, along with an unfavourable age structure, and is not able to revitalize and contribute to the economic recovery of the society. Educated people from the field of education, science of health and culture are in an unfavourable social situation and with small chances for that situation to improve in the next few years. A big number of pensioners[3], with small pensions, refugees and other people (whole families) dependant on social welfare, additionally make a very bad social picture in the Republic of Srpska and give an additional feeling of life anxiety, fear, uncertainty and no perspective in the period to come.

Education in stable social circumstance and developed societies comes as a form of certain social promotion and success in society and life. That principle has also come under question and has entered a zone of degradation because of weak chances and uncertainty in respect of employment of young people in the Republic of Srpska. Great pressure on educational institutions and bad material-technical conditions, lead to a fall of quality in education. Young people look at education more as a chance to go abroad and look for a job there or continue educating themselves, then as a possibility to get employment and social promotion in their own environment.

The organization of the country and the position of the Republic of Srpska in the common state, also have effect on the feeling of uncertainty, initiates fear from political and ethnic crisis and tensions. Entities are formally independent, but in reality are more and more dependent on key decisions and functioning of the central state authorities on the level of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the beginning there was a feeling of full state independence and sovereignty, while today that feeling is getting weaker, which additionally frustrates citizens which found their collective identity and directed it towards full, rounded, and ”enough” independence of the Republic of Srpska as a country. In the entities dominates an ethnic dimension of organizing and functioning of authority, instead of a civil, which additionally curbs the political room and slows the full development of the civil society, legal state, liberalism and protection of human rights and freedoms.

The development of political pluralism in the Republic of Srpska, as well as in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the neighbouring countries, is unfolding through political conflicts, affairs and imputation, without enough elements of political culture, without democratic heritage and liberal tradition. Non-competency, insufficient political education, as well as frustrations of political participants in indirect political activities, leaves an impression that politics is a ”dirty activity”. However, politics are an important and serious activity which assumes equal participation and responsibility of all citizens in the managing of public jobs (Arent, 2002). Politics in our environment presents a compromise and degradation of political work and activities. Instead of liberalism, democracy and tolerance , developing is ”patriocracy” with permission from ”theriocracy”, as a dominant way of political activities and political authorities. In such conditions elections turn into ”cheerleading competitions”, instead of a real choosing between different political offers. All that makes politics, on our territory, closed and distanced from the sensibility and the value system of young people.

The cultural signs today in the Republic of Srpska can be followed through a few of the following parameters: loss of citizen cultural values; returning to some historical and traditional values; renaissance of religion (more in the form of imitation of religion then real belief); negative manifestation of mass culture; fall of moral norms (maintenance of elements of the ”war morale”); strengthening of ideology and its opposition to the truth; indifference towards knowledge, innovations and new cultural trends in the world; negation and resistance towards the process of globalisation and social integration.

On the basis of previous opinions it can be stated that the society about which we are talking about is in a state of anomy, as Dirkem has formulated it. Therefore, the society has for a long time been in a phase of falling and loosing of social energy. There is no mutual cooperation and toleration among individuals and social groups. The value system has fallen apart and everything that has kept the previous society as a whole, and a new effective, development, and initiative system of values has not been built. The society did not build a ”collective conscious” on responsibility for the arisen situation. Anomy does not mean complete absence of rules and principles of regulating of social life, but a situation in which norms are not in accordance with social opportunity, contradictory, dissimulative , so that they bring confusion among citizens and make them disoriented.

The total state in society, whose outlines I have previously stated, has an effect on the feeling of anxiety, restrictedness, and not enough perspective for young people in the Republic of Srpska. Slow and insufficient inclusiveness of young people into the main social circles, distancing from the centre of power and the everywhere present forms of poverty additionally increase the feeling of life anxiety and rejection. A part of young people is trying to build new value opinions in which nationalism, patriotism, collectivism, devotion to a group, conventionalism, egalitarism, statism, closeness towards the world, mistrust, and intolerance. Values which today dominate among young people, and which are a direct consequence of anxiety, restrictions and no perspective, include freedom, justice, honesty and friendship. We will talk about that later in text.

Value forms

It is not easy to preciously determine the term value, as it is a category which depends on the psychological state and internal experience of every individual. Similar goes for group, in other words collective values, and they depend on the state and relations in the group, as well as the position of the group in the wider and smaller environment. Values are located in the basis of all human activities and human’s social consciousness as opinions, behaviour, belief, determination and decisions. Adler has stated that values are the same as actions. We can say that values are determined standards by which we determine if something is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, useful of harmful for the individual, group, community, society, country.

Values are always related to the needs and interests of an individual or a group. They are correctors of needs , interests, desires, motives and actions. Values give them directions, complete them, make their selection. We can easily assume that, for most people, main values such as life, freedom, justice, equality, beauty, goodness, knowledge and success. Everything that is opposite to the mentioned values, we will consider to be valued and desirable for the majority of people. But we have to accept the fact that for some the mentioned values are not something that is desirable, something that gives direction to their activities. So, for example, life is not a universal and lasting value for someone who commits suicide. Here we need to remember Sartrov’s opinion that values are a question of a man’s choice. Therefore, prevailing values are of a rational character, but we can not exclude the presence of irrational in directing of individual and group actions in some historical phases of development of society and the civilisation flow.

Values are in a continual relationship with needs and interests, but they can not be identical with them in a synonym meaning, like some others do it.[4] Needs can also be satisfied without an articulated and conscious value opinion and standard. The interests of an individual can be imposed even when they are against the value norms of a certain environment. Needs and interests can be contrary to the values and value orientations (nationalism, traditionalism, liberalism) when these prevent their satisfaction, fulfilment and development. Therefore, needs and interests have an effect on the change of values and value attitudes and orientations, staying in a dysfunctional position even with changed values and circumstances in which it has come to that change. Also, the formed values of an environment or a group have an effect on the fulfilment of needs (they stimulate, maintain or delay), direct the fulfilling of different interests, preventing (or stimulating) their conflict.

From the previously said it can be seen that it is coming to the disappearance, surpassing of certain values and origination of new ones. That confirms that values belong to the social and historical category, therefore, subject to constant changes. By the development of a society, formed, developed and changed a system of values as a group of value forms of social groups and communities. It is not good for a society if the adopted values and value orientations maintain for long. Also, it is bad if the value system often changes. Both cause confusion, disorientation, unrest and mistrust in people.

The Value Profile of Young People in the Republic of Srpska

The basis of every value system is the relationship towards changes in society. If individuals and groups support change, improvement of conditions of life and improvement in all segments of society, then their value system is in line with the modern flows and demands of the developed society, as well as with its needs and interests. If they are indifferent or if they oppose change, then they support traditionalism and a conservative conscious as a dominant form of value. Young people in the Republic of Srpska accept the attitude that ”the only way for young people to be better off is to constantly support changes in society”. This attitude supports 79,5% of young people, most of them between 19 and 24, which is compatible with their energy as young people, education, wishes, intentions and expectations. Only 1,3% of young people reject such an attitude as their relationship towards society, the world and the environment.

Table 1.

THE ATTITUDE OF YOUNG PEOPLE TOWARDS CHANGES IN SOCIETY

The only way for young people to be better off is

to constantly support changes in society

Attitude

16 – 18 years

19 – 24 years

25 – 30 years

total

Мale

Female

Male

Female

Мale

Female

Completely agree

 

3,2%

 

2,8%

 

14,7%

 

11,5%

 

8,5%

 

6,3%

47,0%

Agree

 

2,1%

 

2,8%

 

7,9%

 

10,2%

 

6,1%

 

3,4%

32,5%

Partially agree

 

0,3%

 

1,1%

 

3,6%

 

6,1%

 

2,2%

 

1,5%

14,8%

Do not agree

 

0,2%

 

0%

 

0,4%

 

0,1%

 

0,4%

 

0,2%

1,3%

No answer

 

0,3%

 

0,4%

 

1,5%

 

0,9%

 

0,8%

 

0,5%

4,4%

Total

6,1%

7,1%

28,1%

28,8%

18,0%

11,9%

100

The relationship of young people in the Republic of Srpska towards changes represents a significant resource in the psychological, mental, emotional, and motivational respect, with we need to seriously count on in all plans and programs, of development of society as well as special position, role and perspective of the young generation in that society. Only 1,3% of young people reject constant support of changes as a principle of improvement of won life and work, while 14,8% have a reserved attitude (partially agrees), and most of them are young females from cities and suburban areas.

The attitude towards the future and past tells us a lot about the desires, wishes and ambitions of young people. Even 62,2% of young people support the idea that in their work, life and activities, they need to turn towards the future, 37,4% thinks that there is need to turn completely towards the future and forget the past. Such a relationship towards life and work is rejected by 7,1% of young people, while 26,6% of them partially supports (women 29,28%) the attitude that there is need to turn towards the future and not look back at the past too much. In the category of not undecided for this attitude, there are mostly men from villages and women from city suburbs. These attitudes are a product of too much thinking of the past and history in everyday life of the past decade. Young people are partially fed up with stories of the great past of their ethnic group, they want the society to turn towards creating something new, before all, in the field of the economy, technology and social relations.

The relationship towards work and the position of work on the ladder of the most important values, tells us a lot about how much individuals, groups, communities and the society as a whole support creation, hard work, and leaning on own strengths and abilities. Research, to which I am leaning on here, shows that 33% of young people in the Republic of Srpska thinks that work is a necessity, and 10,5% of them considers that the best job is the one that requires a little work and earns good money.

A part of young people is ready to work equally good enough for themselves, as well as for the group to which they belong to. At the same time, young people whose age ranges from 22 to 24 years show a little more desire then the rest to take care only of their own interest. That indicates readiness to take care of their own affirmations, career, success, of searching for their own area of activity. That is also a sign of readiness for a free and multipurpose competitive relationship with others. But we can also talk about a little more emphasised display of individualism, awareness, and trust in their qualities. That confirmation can, at one moment, grow into selfishness, closed off, excluded, and shutting off from others. A significant number of young people (17,6%) is ready to always give advantage to group interests (especially ethnic and religious) in relation to individual and personal. That is an indicator of presence of a collective conscious and traditionalist values in young people.

Among general and personal values young people value freedom the most, then comes justice, honesty and friendship, (see Table 2), and only then knowledge, work and personal success. A question is posed, why does work knowledge and personal success take the space between the medium and lower part of the scale of values of today’s youth. The answer could be looked for in the space of everyday life where work and knowledge have not become the basic criteria of selection among people, in any area of collective activities. In our case that is especially expressed when trying to get employment, and advancing in job and career. It can seem worrying the fact that young people put personal success low on the list of the ten offered values and attitudes in everyday life, activity and preference. That can be an expression of insufficient trust and self-confidence in their own abilities, skills and education, as can be the desire to hide own motives and interests and to show some general, universal objectives and attitudes and that way get the predilection of the collective, group, environment to which they belong to.

The indicated list of values can lead us to the conclusion that youth is not satisfied with the degree of freedom and justice, as an indicator and confirmation that some personal and characteristic values such as work, knowledge and wealth can be achieved. Putting freedom in the first place among the offered values, confirms the previous thesis that young people of the Republic of Srpska feel anxiety and limitations in society. Desire to be free is a consequence of frustrations and fear arisen in time of war clashes in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but also a reflection of current social instability and uncertainty. Social stability assumes clear rules, very tough and precise laws, ability of a free choice and participation in social relations, as well as respect of widely accepted rules and norms in society, by those which make those rules as well as those who take care of its application, as well as by those that apply those rules. If such a state is not in dominant ownership of a society, then anomy and anarchy is its possible certainty and freedom a permanent desire and demand. What is a characteristic feature of a modern man, is the seldom readiness to give up freedom, even if it was won in ”hobsovska jungle” (Bjukenen, 2002), and to replace it with another social state.

If we compare the attitude on freedom with the wishes of young people in the Republic of Srpska to leave the country and go abroad (61,6%), then we have one more argument for the assertion on their full feeling of life anxiety and closeness. By looking at Table 2 we can discover that wealth, work and personal success are not priorities which would be satisfied by going abroad. The fact that 34,7% of respondents has expressed the attitude that they would immediately, without thinking, leave the Republic of Srpska, points to us that young people want to leave more because of insufficient freedom, justice, honesty and friendship, then because of employment, wealth and insouciance.

Table 2

DOMINANT VALUES IN YOUNG PEOPLE

Value

General ranking

Ranking according to age

16 – 18

19 – 21

22 – 24

25 – 27

28-30

Freedom

1

1

1

2

1

1

Justice

2

2

2

1

2

2

Honesty

3

4

3

4

3

4

Friendship

4

3

4

5

4

3

Knowledge

5

7

5

3

5

5

Personal Success

6

5

6

8

6

7

Work

7

6

8

6

7

6

Wealth

8

8

7

7

8

10

Fun

9

9

9

10

10

8

Insouciance

10

10

10

9

9

9

If the previously mentioned attitudes on values (Table 2) meet with the actual question, ”by what principle do you manage everyday life and activities”, then we get a different kind of thinking of young people. Namely, young people then express more will and desire to be different and better than others (20,4%), to bring change, innovation and contents into their work and to compete with others (19,9%). True, there are also many of those who acquiesce to by certain habits and inherited principles (15,3%), as well as those who oppose (14,5%) any try to bring innovation and competitive spirit into work, activities, state and behaviour of a certain group or collective. The picture of the commitment of young people to work, educate themselves and acquire knowledge is becoming fuller, and therefore seems reassuring, when they face the question of the surest support for success in life. About 54,6% of young people choose work, knowledge and education as the surest support, while 20,0% see certainty in family, but 16,2% believes most in ”connections” (especially men) as a guide and support towards personal success and advancement in career.

Our research shows that young people today have their idols, or better said, have favourite people and ”personalities” from everyday life, history, science, culture. Just like it was expected, research shows that idols are (favourite ”people”) are persons from the world of ”show-business”, sport and politics. It can seem disappointing, to a neutral observer, the fact that young people today emulate less great writers and scientists, than ”show business stars” and ”people in conflict with the law”, but it is also reassuring that they themselves mention, for example, Bill Gates as someone who can be an idol to young people.

The majority of young people have expressed a flair for ”a firm hand” and centralism in the organization of society and solving of important issues and problems in the narrower environment and society. Almost one third (30,2%) approved an attitude that for improvement of some environment it is best to have a ”fair and determined leader”, while 21,7% thinks that the state needs to have the deciding word in the area of the economy and social relations. Only 11,1% of young people have a positive attitude towards liberalism and supports an attitude of giving a bigger meaning and precedence to freedom and independence of individuals in society. This is an indicator of mistrust of young people into free competition and civil society. That is also a reaction to the slowness of reforms, inbuilt institutions and fear from entering of the society into a state of an even deeper crises and anarchy.

Conclusion

The social state in the Republic of Srpska is burdened with a difficult inheritance from the previous order and a war period. That has had an effect on the slowness of the social reforms (especially economic) and additionally burdened the period of transitions towards a market economy, democracy and pluralism, as a necessary phase of development of all post-socialistic societies. I have stated that the war was an imminent form of a final outcome of a crisis which has took hold of the former SFRY in the late eighties of the twentieth century. Its cause was a conflict around national, religious and cultural identity, and in the final outcome, it turned into a battle for territory.

The post-war period characterises a high percentage of poverty, destroyed industrial economic resources, political, social and cultural frustrations, mistrust in the institutions and state without sovereignty (external and internal). In such conditions young people feel the narrowing of the life and work space, which disables expressing of their potential, wishes, ambitions and satisfaction of main needs and interests. That ”claustrophobic” anxiety young people clearly manifest with their wish to go abroad and look for a new space for their affirmation , and to get away from constant political, social and cultural tensions and economic uncertainty.

The indicated feeling of life anxiety and bad perspectives in the future, very much has an effect on young people to support the system of values in which freedom is in the first place and justice, honesty and friendship its integral elements. Therefore, all tries and wishes of young people to change the existing state, to build their own futures, for a professional and work affirmation are thought to be related to stipulating freedom and getting away from the state of life anxiety.

Literature

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Bjukenen, Dz. (2002), Freedom Boundaries, Belgrade:Dereta

Bauman, Z. (2001), The Individualized Society, Cambridge: Polity Press

Giddens, A. (1998), The Consequences of Modernism, Belgrade:Filip Visnic

Gelener, E. (1997), Nations and Nationalism, Novi Sad:SMS

Djukanovic, B. Besic, M. (2002), The Worlds of Values, Podgorica:CID

Castells, M. (1997), The Power of Identity, Oxford: Blekwel.

Fukujama, F. (1997), Clash of Cultures, Belgrade:ZUNS

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* Sociologist, Profesor, Faculty of Economics in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina

[1] The survey was done for the needs of research of the labour market in the Republic of Srpska, and included 1000 respondents in 26 Municipalities throughout the whole territory of the Republic of Srpska in which 75% of the total population of the Republic of Srpska lives.

[2] In the mentioned survey only 8,4% of young people has expressed readiness to start own business, which tells us about the mistrust in the conditions and abilities for development of a private business. That can also be an indicator of an insufficient degree of information on the needs and room for development of a private business, as well as an indicator of a weak business climate.

[3] An unfavourable relationship between the number of employed people and the number of pensioners indicates to us that pensions will in the future be much uncertain, their increase very seldom, and the pressure on pension funds and state budgets stronger.

[4] Here we point out a few authors and titles in which such an opinion can be met on the relationship between needs and values: B. Djukanovic, M. Besic (2000); R. Bozovic, Comparative sociological research of ownership and entrepreneurship in a transitional period, ”Luca”, Niksic, 1995; B. Horvat, Political economy of socialism, Zagreb, 1982

One thought on “LIFE ANXIETY AND THE VALUE PROFILE OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA

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